Improve initial load time by skipping the rendering of offscreen content.
property, launching in Chromium 85, might be one of the most impactful new CSS
properties for improving page load performance.
content-visibility enables the
user agent to skip an element's rendering work, including layout and painting,
until it is needed. Because rendering is skipped, if a large portion of your
content is off-screen, leveraging the
content-visibility property makes the
initial user load much faster. It also allows for faster interactions with the
on-screen content. Pretty neat.
content-visibility relies on primitives within the the CSS Containment
content-visibility is only
supported in Chromium 85 for now (and deemed "worth
Firefox), the Containment Spec is supported in most modern
The key and overarching goal of CSS containment is to enable rendering performance improvements of web content by providing predictable isolation of a DOM subtree from the rest of the page.
Basically a developer can tell a browser what parts of the page are encapsulated as a set of content, allowing the browsers to reason about the content without needing to consider state outside of the subtree. Knowing which bits of content (subtrees) contain isolated content means the browser can make optimization decisions for page rendering.
There are four types of CSS
each a potential value for the
contain CSS property, which can be combined
in a space-separated list of values:
size: Size containment on an element ensures that the element's box can be laid out without needing to examine its descendants. This means we can potentially skip layout of the descendants if all we need is the size of the element.
layout: Layout containment means that the descendants do not affect the external layout of other boxes on the page. This allows us to potentially skip layout of the descendants if all we want to do is lay out other boxes.
style: Style containment ensures that properties which can have effects on more than just its descendants don't escape the element (e.g. counters). This allows us to potentially skip style computation for the descendants if all we want is to compute styles on other elements.
paint: Paint containment ensures that the descendants of the containing box don't display outside its bounds. Nothing can visibly overflow the element, and if an element is off-screen or otherwise not visible, its descendants will also not be visible. This allows us to potentially skip painting the descendants if the element is offscreen.
Skipping rendering work with
It may be hard to figure out which containment values to use, since browser
optimizations may only kick in when an appropriate set is specified. You can
play around with the values to see what works
best, or you
can use another CSS property called
content-visibility to apply the needed
content-visibility ensures that you get the largest
performance gains the browser can provide with minimal effort from you as a
The content-visibility property accepts several values, but
auto is the one
that provides immediate performance improvements. An element that has
content-visibility: auto gains
paint containment. If
the element is off-screen (and not otherwise relevant to the user—relevant
elements would be the ones that have focus or selection in their subtree), it
size containment (and it stops
What does this mean? In short, if the element is off-screen its descendants are not rendered. The browser determines the size of the element without considering any of its contents, and it stops there. Most of the rendering, such as styling and layout of the element's subtree are skipped.
As the element approaches the viewport, the browser no longer adds the
containment and starts painting and hit-testing the element's content. This
enables the rendering work to be done just in time to be seen by the user.
A note on accessibility
One of the features of
content-visibility: auto is that the off-screen content remains available in the document object model and therefore, the accessibility tree (unlike with
visibility: hidden). This means, that content can be searched for on the page, and navigated to, without waiting for it to load or sacrificing rendering performance.
The flip-side of this, however, is that landmark elements with style features such as
display: none or
visibility: hidden will also appear in the accessibility tree when off-screen, since the browser will not render these styles until they enter the viewport. To prevent these from being visible in the accessibility tree, potentially causing clutter, be sure to also add
Example: a travel blog
A travel blog typically contains a set of stories with a few pictures, and some descriptive text. Here is what happens in a typical browser when it navigates to a travel blog:
- A part of the page is downloaded from the network, along with any needed resources.
- The browser styles and lays out all of the contents of the page, without considering if the content is visible to the user.
- The browser goes back to step 1 until all of the page and resources are downloaded.
In step 2, the browser processes all of the contents looking for things that may have changed. It updates the style and layout of any new elements, along with the elements that may have shifted as a result of new updates. This is rendering work. This takes time.
Now consider what happens if you put
content-visibility: auto on each of the
individual stories in the blog. The general loop is the same: the browser
downloads and renders chunks of the page. However, the difference is in the
amount of work that it does in step 2.
With content-visibility, it will style and layout all of the contents that are currently visible to the user (they are on-screen). However, when processing the story that is fully off-screen, the browser will skip the rendering work and only style and layout the element box itself.
The performance of loading this page would be as if it contained full on-screen stories and empty boxes for each of the off-screen stories. This performs much better, with expected reduction of 50% or more from the rendering cost of loading. In our example, we see a boost from a 232ms rendering time to a 30ms rendering time. That's a 7x performance boost.
What is the work that you need to do in order to reap these benefits? First, we chunk the content into sections:
Then, we apply the following style rule to the sections:
contain-intrinsic-size: 1000px; /* Explained in the next section. */
Specifying the natural size of an element with
In order to realize the potential benefits of
content-visibility, the browser
needs to apply size containment to ensure that the rendering results of contents
do not affect the size of the element in any way. This means that the element
will lay out as if it was empty. If the element does not have a height specified
in a regular block layout, then it will be of 0 height.
This might not be ideal, since the size of the scrollbar will shift, being reliant on each story having a non-zero height.
Thankfully, CSS provides another property,
effectively specifies the natural size of the element if the element is
affected by size containment. In our example, we are setting it to
an estimate for the height and width of the sections.
This means it will lay out as if it had a single child of "intrinsic-size"
dimensions, ensuring that your unsized divs still occupy space.
contain-intrinsic-size acts as a placeholder size in lieu of rendered content.
In Chromium 98 and onward, there is a new
contain-intrinsic-size. When specified, the browser will remember
the last-rendered size, if any, and use that instead of the developer-provided placeholder
size. For example, if you specified
contain-intrinsic-size: auto 300px, the
element will start out with a
300px intrinsic sizing in each dimension, but once
the element's contents are rendered, it will retain the rendered intrinsic size.
Any subsequent rendering size changes will also be remembered. In practice, this means that if you
scroll an element with
content-visibility: auto applied, and then scroll it back
offscreen, it will automatically retain its ideal width and height, and not revert
to the placeholder sizing. This feature is especially useful for infinite scrollers,
which can now automatically improve sizing estimation over time as the user
explores the page.
Hiding content with
What if you want to keep the content unrendered regardless of whether or not it
is on-screen, while leveraging the benefits of cached rendering state? Enter:
content-visibility: hidden property gives you all of the same benefits of
unrendered content and cached rendering state as
content-visibility: auto does
off-screen. However, unlike with
auto, it does not automatically start to
This gives you more control, allowing you to hide an element's contents and later unhide them quickly.
Compare it to other common ways of hiding element's contents:
display: none: hides the element and destroys its rendering state. This means unhiding the element is as expensive as rendering a new element with the same contents.
visibility: hidden: hides the element and keeps its rendering state. This doesn't truly remove the element from the document, as it (and it's subtree) still takes up geometric space on the page and can still be clicked on. It also updates the rendering state any time it is needed even when hidden.
content-visibility: hidden, on the other hand, hides the element while
preserving its rendering state, so, if there are any changes that need to
happen, they only happen when the element is shown again (i.e. the
content-visibility: hidden property is removed).
Some great use cases for
content-visibility: hidden are when implementing
advanced virtual scrollers, and measuring layout. They're also great for
single-page applications (SPA's). Inactive app views can be left in the DOM with
content-visibility: hidden applied to prevent their display but maintain their
cached state. This makes the view quick to render when it becomes active again.
Effects on Interaction to Next Paint (INP)
INP is a metric that evaluates a page's ability to be reliably responsive to user input. Responsiveness can be affected by any excessive amount of work that occurs on the main thread, including rendering work.
Whenever you can reduce rendering work on any given page, you're giving the main thread an opportunity to respond to user inputs more quickly. This includes rendering work, and using the
content-visiblity CSS property where appropriate can reduce rendering work—especially during startup, when most rendering and layout work is done.
Reducing rendering work has a direct effect on INP. When users attempt to interact with a page that uses the
content-visibility property properly to defer layout and rendering of offscreen elements, you're giving the main thread a chance to respond to critical user-visible work. This can improve your page's INP in some situations.
content-visibility and the CSS Containment Spec mean some exciting performance
boosts are coming right to your CSS file. For more information on these
properties, check out: