Web Vitals patterns

A collection of common UX patterns optimized for Core Web Vitals. This collection includes patterns that are often tricky to implement without hurting your Core Web Vitals scores. You can use the code in these examples to help ensure your projects stay on the right track.

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Placeholders

Placeholders reserve space for future page content. Placeholders can be used as a solution to layout shifts caused by injecting page content; they can also be used in conjunction with lazy-loading.

Placeholders

<div class="grid">
    <div class="item">
        <div class="image-container">
            <img src="hats.jpg">
        </div>
        <div class="text-container">Hats</div>
    </div>
    <div class="item empty">
        <div class="image-container">
            <img src="">
        </div>
        <div class="text-container">Watches</div>
    </div>
    <div class="item empty">
        <div class="image-container">
            <img src="">
        </div>
        <div class="text-container"></div>
    </div>
    <div class="item empty">
        <div class="image-container">
            <img src="">
        </div>
        <div class="text-container"></div>
    </div>
    <div class="item empty">
        <div class="image-container">
            <img src="">
        </div>
        <div class="text-container"></div>
    </div>
    <div class="item empty">
        <div class="image-container">
            <img src="">
        </div>
        <div class="text-container"></div>
    </div>
</div>
const data = [
    {
        description: "Watches",
        src: "https://web-dev.imgix.net/image/j2RDdG43oidUy6AL6LovThjeX9c2/GMPpoERpp9aM5Rihk5F2.jpg"
    },
    {
        description: "Shirt",
        src: "shirt.jpg"
    },
    {
        description: "Shorts",
        src: "shorts.jpg"
    },
    {
        description: "Sunglasses",
        src: "sunglasses.jpg"
    },
    {
        description: "Shoes",
        src: "shoes.jpg"
    }
];
document.querySelectorAll(".item.empty").forEach((el, index) => {
    if (data[index]) {
        el.classList = "item loaded";
        el.querySelector("img").src = data[index].src;
        el.querySelector(".text-container").innerHTML = data[index].description;
    }
});
:root {
    --placeholder-primary: #eeeeee;
    --placeholder-secondary: #cccccc;
}
.grid {
    display: flex;
    flex-direction: row;
    flex-wrap: wrap;
    justify-content: center;
    gap: 1em;
    width: 100%;
    max-width: 650px;
    margin: 1em 0em;
}
.item {
    display: grid;
    gap: .5em;
    width: 200px;
}
.text-container {
    font-size: 1em;
    height: 1.5em;
    text-align: center;
    font-weight: bold;
}
.image-container {
    width: 200px;
    height: 200px;;
    animation: placeholder ease-in-out 2s infinite;
}
.image-container img {
    width: 100%;
}
@keyframes placeholder {
    0% {
        background-color: var(--placeholder-primary);
    }
    50% {
        background-color: var(--placeholder-secondary);
    }
    100% {
        background-color: var(--placeholder-primary);
    }
}
@keyframes fadeIn {
    0% {
        opacity: 0%;
    }
    100% {
        opacity: 100%;
    }
}
.item.loaded .image-container {
    animation: none;
}
.item.loaded .image-container img{
    animation: fadeIn linear .5s;
}

These placeholders provide users with a visual indication that new content is loading; they also help prevent layout shifts.

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