Dance Tonite in WebVR

I was excited when the Google Data Arts team approached Moniker and myself about working together to explore the possibilities introduced by WebVR. I have watched the work coming from their team over the years and their projects have always struck a chord with me. Our collaboration resulted in Dance Tonite, an ever-changing VR dance experience with LCD Soundsystem and their fans. Here is how we did it.

The concept

We began with developing a series of prototypes using WebVR, an open standard that makes it possible to enter VR by visiting a website using your browser. The goal is to make it easier for everyone to get into VR experiences, no matter what device you have.

We took this to heart. Whatever we came up with should work on all types of VR, from the VR headsets that work with mobile phones such as Google’s Daydream View, Cardboard and Samsung’s Gear VR to room-scale systems such as the HTC VIVE and Oculus Rift which reflect your physical movements in your virtual environment. Perhaps most importantly, we felt it would be in the spirit of the web to make something that also works for everyone who does not own a VR device.

1. DIY motion capture

Because we wanted to involve users creatively, we started looking into the possibilities for participation and self expression using VR. We were impressed by how finely you could move and look around in VR, and how much fidelity there was. This gave us an idea. Instead of having users look at or create something, how about recording their movements?

Someone recording themselves on Dance Tonite. The screen behind them
  shows what they are seeing in their headset

We cooked up a prototype where we recorded the positions of our VR goggles and controllers while dancing. We replaced the recorded positions with abstract shapes and marveled at the results. The results were so human and contained so much personality! We quickly realized that we could use WebVR to do cheap motion capture at home.

With WebVR, the developer has access to the user’s head position and orientation via the VRPose object. This value is updated every frame by the VR hardware so that your code can render new frames from the correct point of view. Through the GamePad API with WebVR, we also can access the position/orientation of the users controllers via the GamepadPose object. We simply store all these position and orientation values every frame, thus creating a “recording” of the user’s movements.

2. Minimalism & costumes

With today’s room scale VR equipment, we can track three points of the user’s body: their head and two hands. In Dance Tonite, we wanted to keep the focus on the humanity in the movement of these 3 points in space. To achieve this, we pushed the aesthetic as minimal as we possibly could in order to focus on the movement. We liked the idea of putting people’s brains to work.

This video demonstrating the work of the Swedish Psychologist Gunnar Johansson was one of the examples we referred to when considering stripping things down as much as possible. It shows how floating white dots are instantly recognizable as bodies when seen in motion.

Visually, we were inspired by the colored rooms and geometric costumes in this recording of Margarete Hastings’s 1970 restaging of Oskar Schlemmer’s Triadic Ballet.

Whereas Schlemmer’s reason for choosing abstract geometric costumes was to limit the movements of his dancers to that of puppets & marionettes, we had the opposite goal for Dance Tonite.

We ended up basing our choice of shapes on how much information they conveyed by rotation. An orb looks the same no matter how it is rotated, but a cone really points in the direction that it is looking and looks different from the front than the back.

3. Loop pedal for movement

We wanted to show large groups of recorded people dancing and moving with each other. To do so live wouldn’t be feasible, since VR devices aren’t out in large enough numbers. But we still wanted to have groups of people reacting to each other through movement. Our minds went to Norman McClaren’s recursive performance in his 1964 video piece “Canon.”

McClaren’s performance features a series of highly choreographed movements that start to interact with one another after every loop. Much like a loop pedal in music, where musicians jam with themselves by layering different pieces of live music, we were interested in seeing if we could create an environment where users could improvise looser versions of performances freely.

4. Interconnected rooms

Interconnected rooms

Like a lot of music, the tracks of LCD Soundsystem are built up using precisely timed measures. Their track, Tonite, which is featured in our project, features measures that are exactly 8 seconds long. We wanted to have users make a performance for each 8-second loop in the track. Even though the rhythm of these measures does not change, their musical content does. As the song progresses, there are moments with different instruments and vocals to which the performers can react in different ways. Each of these measures are expressed as a room, in which people can make a performance that fits to it.

Optimizations for performance: don't drop frames

Creating a multi-platform VR experience that runs on a single codebase with optimal performance for each device or platform is not a simple feat.

When in VR, one the most nauseating things you can experience is caused by the frame rate doesn’t keep up with your movement. If you turn your head but the visuals your eyes see don’t match the motion your inner ear feels, it causes instant stomach churn. For this reason, we needed to avoid any large frame rate delay. Here are some optimizations we implemented.

1. Instanced buffer geometry

Since our entire project uses only a handful of 3d objects, we were able to get a huge performance boost by using Instanced Buffer Geometry. Basically, it allows you to upload your object to the GPU once and draw as many “instances” of that object as you like in a single draw call. In Dance Tonite, we only have 3 different objects (a cone, a cylinder, and room with a hole), but potentially hundreds of copies of those objects. Instance Buffer Geometry is a part of ThreeJS, but we used Dusan Bosnjak’s experimental and in-progress fork that implements THREE.InstanceMesh, which makes working with Instanced Buffer Geometry much easier.

2. Avoiding the garbage collector

As with many other scripting languages, JavaScript automatically frees memory by finding out which objects that were allocated are not used anymore. This process is called garbage collection.

Developers have no control over when this happens. The garbage collector could show up at our doors at any moment and start emptying the garbage, resulting in dropped frames as they take their sweet time.

The solution for this is to produce as little garbage as we can by recycling our objects. Instead of creating a new vector object for every calculation, we marked scratch objects for reuse. Because we hold on to them by moving our reference to them outside of our scope, they weren’t marked for removal.

For instance, here’s our code to convert the location matrix of the user’s head and hands into the array of position/rotation values we store each frame. By reusing SERIALIZE_POSITION, SERIALIZE_ROTATION, and SERIALIZE_SCALE, we avoid the memory allocation and garbage collection that would take place if we created new objects each time the function is called.

const SERIALIZE_POSITION = new THREE.Vector3();
const SERIALIZE_ROTATION = new THREE.Quaternion();
const SERIALIZE_SCALE = new THREE.Vector3();
export const serializeMatrix = (matrix) => {
    return SERIALIZE_POSITION.toArray()

3. Serializing motion & progressive playback

In order to capture the movements of users in VR, we needed to serialize the position and rotation of their headset and controllers and upload this data to our servers. We started out capturing the full transformation matrices for every frame. This performed well, but with 16 numbers multiplied by 3 positions each at 90 frames per second, it led to very large files and therefore long waits while uploading and downloading the data. By extracting just the positional and rotational data from the transformation matrices we were able to bring down these values from 16 to 7.

Since visitors on the web often click on a link without knowing exactly what to expect, we need to show visual content quickly or they will leave within seconds.

For this reason, we wanted to make sure our project could start playing as soon as possible. Initially, we were using JSON as a format to load our movement data. The problem is that we have to load the complete JSON file before we are able to parse it. Not very progressive.

In order to keep a project like Dance Tonite displaying at the highest possible frame rate, the browser only has a small amount of time each frame for JavaScript calculations. If you take too long, the animations start to stutter. At first, we were experiencing stutters as these huge JSON files were decoded by the browser.

We came across a convenient streaming data format based called NDJSON or Newline delimited JSON. The trick here is to make a file with a series of valid JSON strings, each on their own line. This allows you to parse the file while it is loading, allowing us to display performances before they are fully loaded.

Here is what a section of one of our recordings looks like:

[-464,17111,-6568,-235,-315,-44,9992,-3509,7823,-7074, ... ]
[-583,17146,-6574,-215,-361,-38,9991,-3743,7821,-7092, ... ]
[-693,17158,-6580,-117,-341,64,9993,-3977,7874,-7171, ... ]
[-772,17134,-6591,-93,-273,205,9994,-4125,7889,-7319, ... ]
[-814,17135,-6620,-123,-248,408,9988,-4196,7882,-7376, ... ]
[-840,17125,-6644,-173,-227,530,9982,-4174,7815,-7356, ... ]
[-868,17120,-6670,-148,-183,564,9981,-4069,7732,-7366, ... ]

Using NDJSON let us keep the data representation of the individual frames of the performances as strings. We could wait until we reached the necessary time, before decoding them into positional data, thus spreading out the processing needed over time.

4. Interpolating movement

Because we were hoping to display between 30 to 60 performances running at the same time, we needed to bring our data rate down even further than we already had. The Data Arts Team tackled the same problem in their Virtual Art Sessions project, where they play back recordings of artists painting in VR using Tilt Brush. They solved it by making intermediate versions of the user data with lower frame rates and interpolating between the frames while playing them back. We were surprised to find that we could hardly spot the difference between an interpolated recording running at 15 FPS versus the original 90 FPS recording.

To see for yourself, you can force Dance Tonite to play back the data at various rates using the ?dataRate= query string. You can use this to compare the recorded motion at 90 frames a second, 45 frames a second, or 15 frames a second.

For position, we do a linear interpolation between the previous keyframe and the next, based on how close we are in time between the keyframes (ratio):

const { x: x1, y: y1, z: z1 } = getPosition(previous, performanceIndex, limbIndex);
const { x: x2, y: y2, z: z2 } = getPosition(next, performanceIndex, limbIndex);
interpolatedPosition = new THREE.Vector3();
    x1 + (x2 - x1) * ratio,
    y1 + (y2 - y1) * ratio,
    z1 + (z2 - z1) * ratio

For orientation, we do a spherical linear interpolation (slerp) between keyframes. Orientation is stored as Quaternions.

const quaternion = getQuaternion(previous, performanceIndex, limbIndex);
    getQuaternion(next, performanceIndex, limbIndex),

5. Syncing movements to music

In order to know which frame of the recorded animations to playback, we need to know the current time of the music down to the millisecond. It turns out that although the HTML Audio element is perfect for progressively loading and playing back sound, the time property it provides does not change in sync with the frame loop of the browser. It is always a bit off. Sometimes a fraction of a ms too early, sometimes a fraction too late.

This leads to stutters in our beautiful dance recordings, which we want to avoid at all costs. To remedy this, we implemented our own timer in JavaScript. This way we can be certain that the amount of time changing between frames is exactly the amount of time that has passed since the last frame. Whenever our timer goes more than 10 ms out of sync with the music, we synchronize it back again.

6. Culling and fog

Every story needs a good ending and we wanted to do something surprising for the users that made it to the end of our experience. As you leave the last room, you enter what feels like a quiet landscape of cones and cylinders. “Is this the end?”, you wonder. As you move further into the field, suddenly the tones of the music cause different groups of cones and cylinders to form into dancers. You find yourself in the middle of a huge party! Then as the music stops abruptly, everything falls to the ground.

While this felt great as a viewer, it introduced some performance hurdles to solve. Room scale VR devices and their high end gaming rigs performed perfectly with the 40 odd extra performances needed for our new ending. But frame rates on certain mobile devices were halved.

To counteract this, we introduced fog. After a certain distance everything slowly becomes black. Since we don’t need to calculate or draw that which is not visible, we cull performances in rooms that aren’t visible and this allows us to save work for both the CPU & GPU. But how to decide on the right distance?

Some devices can handle anything you throw at them and others are more constricted. We chose to implement a sliding scale. By continually measuring the amount of frames per second, we can adjust the distance of our fog accordingly. As long as our frame rate is running smoothly, we try taking on more render work by pushing out the fog. If the framerate isn’t running smooth enough, we bring the fog closer allowing us to skip rendering performances in the darkness.

// this is called every frame
// the FPS calculation is based on stats.js by @mrdoob
tick: (interval = 3000) => {
    const time = (performance || Date).now();
    if (prevTime == null) prevTime = time;
    if (time > prevTime + interval) {
    fps = Math.round((frames * 1000) / (time - prevTime));
    frames = 0;
    prevTime = time;
    const lastCullDistance = settings.cullDistance;

    // if the fps is lower than 52 reduce the cull distance
    if (fps <= 52) {
        settings.cullDistance = Math.max(
        settings.cullDistance - settings.roomDepth
    // if the FPS is higher than 56, increase the cull distance
    else if (fps > 56) {
        settings.cullDistance = Math.min(
        settings.cullDistance + settings.roomDepth

    // gradually increase the cull distance to the new setting
    cullDistance = cullDistance * 0.95 + settings.cullDistance * 0.05;

    // mask the edge of the cull distance with fog
    viewer.fog.near = cullDistance - settings.roomDepth;
    viewer.fog.far = cullDistance;

Something for everyone: building VR for the web

Designing and developing multi-platform, asymmetric experiences means accounting for each user’s needs depending on their device. And with every design decision, we needed to see how that might impact other users. How do you ensure that what you see in VR is equally as exciting as without VR, and visa versa?

1. The yellow orb

So our room-scale VR users would be making the performances, but how would the users of mobile VR devices (such as Cardboard, Daydream View or Samsung Gear) experience the project? For this, we introduced a new element to our environment: the yellow orb.

The yellow orb
The yellow orb

When you watch the project in VR, you are doing so from the point of view of the yellow orb. As you float from room to room, the dancers react to your presence. They gesture to you, dance around you, make funny motions behind your back and move quickly out of your way so they don’t bump into you. The yellow orb is always the center of attention.

The reason for this is that while recording a performance, the yellow orb moves through the center of the room in sync with the music and loops back around. The position of the orb gives the performer an idea where they are in time and how much time they have left in their loop. It provides a natural focus for them to build a performance around.

2. Another point of view

We didn’t want to leave out users without VR, especially as they would likely be our biggest audience. Instead of making a faux VR experience, we wanted to give screen-based devices their very own experience. We had the idea of showing the performances from above from an isometric perspective. This perspective has a rich history in computer games. It was first used in Zaxxon, a space shooter game from 1982. Whereas VR users are in the thick of it, the isometric perspective gives a god-like view on the action. We chose to scale up the models slightly, giving a touch of doll-house aesthetic.

3. Shadows: fake it 'till you make it

We found that some our users were having a hard time seeing depth in our isometric point of view. I am quite sure it is for this reason that Zaxxon was also one of the first computer games in history to project a dynamic shadow under its flying objects.


It turns out that making shadows in 3D is hard. Especially for constricted devices like mobile phones. Initially we had to make the difficult decision to cut them out of the equation, but after asking the author of Three.js and experienced demo hacker Mr doob for advice, he came up with the novel idea of… faking them.

Instead of having to calculate how each of our floating objects is obscuring our lights and therefore throwing shadows of different shapes, we draw the same circular blurred texture image under each of them. Since our visuals are not trying to mimic reality in the first place, we found we could get away with it quite easily with just a few tweaks. When the objects come closer to the ground, we have the textures become darker and smaller. When they move up, we make the textures more transparent and larger.

To create them, we used this texture with a soft white to black gradient (with no alpha transparency). We set the material as transparent and use subtractive blending. This helps them blend nicely when they overlap:

function createShadow() {
    const texture = new THREE.TextureLoader().load(shadowTextureUrl);
    const material = new THREE.MeshLambertMaterial({
        map: texture,
        transparent: true,
        side: THREE.BackSide,
        depthWrite: false,
        blending: THREE.SubtractiveBlending,
    const geometry = new THREE.PlaneBufferGeometry(0.5, 0.5, 1, 1);
    const plane = new THREE.Mesh(geometry, material);
    return plane;

4. Being there

By clicking on the heads of a performer, visitors without VR are able to watch things from the dancer’s point of view. From this angle, lots of little details become apparent. Trying to keep their performances in step, dancers quickly glance at each other. As the orb enter the room, you see them nervously looking in its direction. While as a viewer, you cannot influence these movements, it does convey the feeling of immersion surprisingly well. Again, we preferred doing this over presenting our users with a bland mouse-controlled faux VR version.

5. Sharing recordings

We know how proud you can be when pulling off an intricately choreographed recording of 20 layers of performers reacting to each other. We knew our users would probably want to show it to their friends. But a still image of this feat doesn’t communicate enough. Instead, we wanted to allow our users to share video of their performances. Actually, why not a GIF? Our animations are flat shaded, perfect for the format’s limited color palettes.

Sharing recordings

We turned to GIF.js, a JavaScript library that allows you to encode animated gifs from within the browser. It offloads the encoding of frames to web workers which are able to run in the background as separate processes, thus being able to take advantage of multiple processors working side-by-side.

Sadly, with the amount of frames we needed for the animations, the encoding process was still too slow. The GIF is able to make small files by using a limited color palette. We found that most time was being spent finding the closest color for each pixel. We were able to optimize this process tenfold by hacking in a small short cut: if the color of the pixel is the same as the last one, use the same color from the palette as before.

Now we had fast encodes, but the resulting GIF files were too large in size. The GIF format allows you to indicate how each frame is to be displayed on top of the last by defining its dispose method. To get smaller files, instead of updating each pixel each frame, we only update the pixels that changed. While slowing down the encoding process again, this did bring down our file sizes nicely.

6. Solid ground: Google Cloud & Firebase

The backend of a “user-generated content” site can often be complicated and fragile, but we came up with a system that is simple and robust thanks to Google Cloud and Firebase. When a performer uploads a new dance to the system, they are authenticated anonymously by Firebase Authentication. They are given permission to upload their recording to a temporary space using Cloud Storage for Firebase. When the upload is completed, the client machine calls a Cloud Functions for Firebase HTTP trigger using their Firebase token. This triggers a server process that validates the submission, creates a database record, and moves the recording to a public directory on Google Cloud Storage.

Solid ground

All of our public content is stored in a series of flat files in a Cloud Storage Bucket. This means our data is quickly accessible around the world and we don’t need to worry about high traffic loads affecting data availability in any way.

We used a Firebase Realtime Database and Cloud Function endpoints to build a simple moderation/curation tool that lets us watch each new submission in VR and publish new playlists from any device.

7. Service Workers

Service workers are a fairly recent innovation that help manage the caching of website assets. In our case, service workers load our content lightning fast for return visitors and even allow the site to work offline. These are important features since many of our visitors will be on mobile connections of varying quality.

Adding a service workers to the project was easy thanks to a handy webpack plugin that handles most of the heavy lifting for you. In the configuration below, we generate a service worker that will automatically cache all our static files. It will pull the latest playlist file from the network, if available, since the playlist will be updating all the time. All the recording json files should pull from the cache if available, because these will never change.

const SWPrecacheWebpackPlugin = require('sw-precache-webpack-plugin');
    new SWPrecacheWebpackPlugin({
    dontCacheBustUrlsMatching: /\.\w{8}\./,
    filename: 'service-worker.js',
    minify: true,
    navigateFallback: 'index.html',
    staticFileGlobsIgnorePatterns: [/\.map$/, /asset-manifest\.json$/],
    runtimeCaching: [{
        urlPattern: /playlist\.json$/,
        handler: 'networkFirst',
    }, {
        urlPattern: /\/recordings\//,
        handler: 'cacheFirst',
        options: {
        cache: {
            maxEntries: 120,
            name: 'recordings',

Currently, the plugin doesn’t handle progressively loaded media assets like our music files, so we worked around that by setting the Cloud Storage Cache-Control header on these files to public, max-age=31536000 so that the browser will cache the file for up to one year.


We’re excited to see how performers will add to this experience and use it as a tool for creative expression using motion. We’ve released all the code open source, which you can find at In these early days of VR and especially WebVR, we look forward to seeing what new creative and unexpected directions this new medium will take. Dance on.