Published: May 14, 2024

All major engines now support the CSS stepped value math functions— round(), mod(), and rem().

The stepped value functions all transform a given value according to another
*step value*.

## The `round()`

function

The `round()`

function takes a value to be rounded,
a rounding interval, and an optional rounding strategy.
The value is rounded according to the rounding strategy,
to the nearest integer multiple of the rounding interval.

Either the value to be rounded, or the rounded interval, should be a CSS custom property. While it's valid to hardcode both values, there's little point rounding a number if you could calculate the value yourself.

The following CSS rounds the value of `--my-font-size`

, to the interval of `1rem`

.

```
font-size: round(var(--my-font-size), 1rem);
```

The default rounding strategy is `nearest`

. The previous example including the
rounding strategy is as follows:

```
font-size: round(nearest,var(--my-font-size), 1rem);
```

The possible values for the rounding strategy are:

`up`

: Equivalent to JavaScript`Math.ceil()`

method. Rounds the value up to the nearest whole multiple of the rounding interval.`down`

: Equivalent to JavaScript`Math.floor()`

method. Rounds the value down to the nearest whole multiple of the rounding interval.`nearest`

(default): Equivalent to JavaScript`Math.round()`

. Rounds the value up or down, to the nearest whole multiple of the rounding interval.`to-zero`

: Equivalent to JavaScript`Math.trunc()`

method. Rounds the value to the nearest integer multiple of the rounding interval closer to zero.

Learn more about `round()`

in
The New CSS Math: `round()`

,
by Dan Wilson.

## The `rem()`

and `mod()`

functions

The `rem()`

and `mod()`

CSS functions work in a similar way to the JavaScript
remainder operator (%). They take two values, the first (the dividend) is divided by the second (the divisor),
and the remainder is returned.

```
margin: rem(18px, 5px); /* returns 3px */
```

The difference between the two functions is that `rem()`

always takes the sign
of the dividend, therefore if the first value is positive the returned value
will be positive. The `mod()`

function takes the sign of the divisor.

Learn more about `rem()`

and `mod()`

in
The New CSS Math: `rem()`

and `mod()`

,
by Dan Wilson.