Media conversion

Derek Herman
Derek Herman
Joe Medley
Joe Medley

In this article we are going to learn some common commands for converting and manipulating specific characteristics of media files. Although we've tried to show equivalent operations for all procedures, not all operations are possible in both applications.

In many cases, the commands we're showing may be combined in a single command line operation, and would be when actually used. For example, there's nothing preventing you from setting an output file's bitrate in the same operation as a file conversion. For this article, we often show these operations as separate commands for the sake of clarity.

Conversion is done with these applications:

Display characteristics

Both Shaka Packager and FFmpeg can be used to inspect the content of a media file and then display the characteristics of a stream. However, both provide different output for the same media.

Characteristics using Shaka Packager

packager input=glocken.mp4 --dump_stream_info

The output looks like:

File "glocken.mp4":
Found 2 stream(s).
Stream [0] type: Video
 codec_string: avc1.640028
 time_scale: 30000
 duration: 300300 (10.0 seconds)
 is_encrypted: false
 codec: H264
 width: 1920
 height: 1080
 pixel_aspect_ratio: 1:1
 trick_play_factor: 0
 nalu_length_size: 4

Stream [1] type: Audio
 codec_string: mp4a.40.2
 time_scale: 48000
 duration: 481280 (10.0 seconds)
 is_encrypted: false
 codec: AAC
 sample_bits: 16
 num_channels: 2
 sampling_frequency: 48000
 language: eng
 seek_preroll_ns: 20833

Characteristics using FFmpeg

ffmpeg -i glocken.mp4

The output looks like:

Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from 'glocken.mp4':
    major_brand     : isom
    minor_version   : 512
    compatible_brands: isomiso2avc1mp41
    encoder         : Lavf57.83.100
  Duration: 00:00:10.03, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 8063 kb/s
    Stream #0:0(eng): Video: h264 (High) (avc1 / 0x31637661), yuvj420p(pc), 1920x1080, 7939 kb/s, 29.97 fps, 29.97 tbr, 30k tbn, 59.94 tbc (default)
      handler_name    : VideoHandler
    Stream #0:1(eng): Audio: aac (LC) (mp4a / 0x6134706D), 48000 Hz, stereo, fltp, 127 kb/s (default)
      handler_name    : SoundHandler
At least one output file must be specified

Demux (separate) the audio and video streams

Shaka Packager requires demuxing when converting files. This is also required for using media frameworks.

Shaka Packager demuxing


packager input=myvideo.mp4,stream=video,output=myvideo_video.mp4
packager input=myvideo.mp4,stream=audio,output=myvideo_audio.m4a


packager \
  input=myvideo.mp4,stream=video,output=myvideo_video.mp4 \


packager \
  input=myvideo.webm,stream=video,output=myvideo_video.webm \

FFmpeg demuxing


ffmpeg -i myvideo.mp4 -vcodec copy -an myvideo_video.mp4
ffmpeg -i myvideo.mp4 -acodec copy -vn myvideo_audio.m4a


ffmpeg -i myvideo.webm -vcodec copy -an myvideo_video.webm
ffmpeg -i myvideo.webm -acodec copy -vn myvideo_audio.webm

Remux (combine) the audio and video streams

In some situation you will need to combine the audio and video back into a single container. Especially when not using a media framework. This is something FFmpeg can handle quite well and is something Shaka Packager does not currently support.

ffmpeg -i myvideo_video.webm -i myvideo_audio.webm -c copy myvideo.webm

Change characteristics


For FFmpeg, we can do this while converting to .mp4 or .webm.

ffmpeg -i -b:v 350K myvideo.mp4
ffmpeg -i -vf setsar=1:1 -b:v 350K myvideo.webm

Dimensions (resolution)

ffmpeg -i myvideo.webm -s 1920x1080 myvideo_1920x1080.webm

File type

Shaka Packager cannot process .mov files and hence cannot be used to convert files from that format.

.mov to .mp4

ffmpeg -i myvideo.mp4

.mov to .webm

ffmpeg -i myvideo.webm

Synchronize audio and video

To ensure that audio and video synchronize during playback, insert keyframes.

ffmpeg -i myvideo.mp4 -keyint_min 150 -g 150 -f webm -vf setsar=1:1 out.webm


ffmpeg -i myvideo.mp4 -c:v libx264 -c:a copy myvideo.mp4

Audio for an MP4

ffmpeg -i myvideo.mp4 -c:v copy -c:a aac myvideo.mp4


ffmpeg -i myvideo.webm -v:c libvpx-vp9 -v:a copy myvideo.webm

Audio for a WebM

ffmpeg -i myvideo.webm -v:c copy -v:a libvorbis myvideo.webm
ffmpeg -i myvideo.webm -v:c copy -v:a libopus myvideo.webm

Video-on-demand and live-streaming

There are two types of streaming protocols we are going to demonstrate in this article. The first is Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH), which is an adaptive bitrate streaming technique and web-standards-based method of presenting video-on-demand. The second is HTTP Live Streaming (HLS), which is Apple's standard for live-streaming and video-on-demand for the web.


This example generates the Media Presentation Description (MPD) output file from the audio and video streams.

packager \
  input=myvideo.mp4,stream=audio,output=myvideo_audio.mp4 \
  input=myvideo.mp4,stream=video,output=myvideo_video.mp4 \
  --mpd_output myvideo_vod.mpd


These examples generate an M3U8 output file from the audio and video streams, which is a UTF-8 encoded multimedia playlist.

ffmpeg -i myvideo.mp4 -c:a copy -b:v 8M -c:v copy -f hls \
  -hls_time 10 -hls_list_size 0 myvideo.m3u8


packager \
  'input=myvideo.mp4,stream=video,segment_template=output$Number$.ts,playlist_name=video_playlist.m3u8' \
  'input=myvideo.mp4,stream=audio,segment_template=output_audio$Number$.ts,playlist_name=audio_playlist.m3u8,hls_group_id=audio,hls_name=ENGLISH' \

Now that we hopefully have a good grasp on how to convert files, we can build on what we've learned in this article and go learn about Media encryption next.