A signed exchange (SXG) is a delivery mechanism that makes it possible to authenticate the origin of a resource independently of how it was delivered. This decoupling advances a variety of use cases such as privacy-preserving prefetching, offline internet experiences, and serving from third-party caches. Additionally, implementing SXGs can improve Largest Contentful Paint (LCP) for some sites.
This article provides a comprehensive overview of SXGs: how they work, use cases, and tooling.
Browser compatibility #
SXGs are supported by Chromium-based browsers (starting with versions: Chrome 73, Edge 79, and Opera 64).
Signed Exchanges (SXGs) allow a site to cryptographically sign a request/response pair (an "HTTP exchange") in a way that makes it possible for the browser to verify the origin and integrity of the content independently of how the content was distributed. As a result, the browser can display the URL of the origin site in the address bar, rather than the URL of the server that delivered the content.
The broader implication of SXGs is that they make content portable: content delivered via a SXG can be easily distributed by third parties while maintaining full assurance and attribution of its origin. Historically, the only way for a site to use a third-party to distribute its content while maintaining attribution has been for the site to share its SSL certificates with the distributor. This has security drawbacks; moreover, it is a far stretch from making content truly portable.
In the long-term, truly portable content can be utilized to achieve use cases like fully offline experiences. In the immediate-term, the primary use case of SXGs is the delivery of faster user experiences by providing content in an easily cacheable format. Specifically, Google Search will cache and sometimes prefetch SXGs. For sites that receive a large portion of their traffic from Google Search, SXGs can be an important tool for delivering faster page loads to users.
The SXG format #
An SXG is encapsulated in a binary-encoded file that has two primary components: an HTTP exchange and a signature. The HTTP exchange consists of a request URL, content negotiation information, and an HTTP response.
Here's an example of a decoded SXG file:
format version: 1b3
Expires: Mon, 24 Aug 2020 16:08:24 GMT
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
Date: Mon, 17 Aug 2020 16:08:24 GMT
header integrity: sha256-Gl9bFHnNvHppKsv+bFEZwlYbbJ4vyf4MnaMMvTitTGQ=
The exchange has a valid signature.
payload [1256 bytes]:
<meta charset="utf-8" />
<meta http-equiv="Content-type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
expires parameter in the signature indicates a SXG's expiration date. A SXG may be valid for at most 7 days. If the expiration date of an SXG is more than 7 days in the future, the browser will reject it. Find more information on the signature header in the Signed HTTP Exchanges spec.
Web Packaging #
SXGs are a part of the broader Web Packaging spec proposal family. In addition to SXGs, the other major component of the Web Packaging spec is Web Bundles ("bundled HTTP exchanges"). Web Bundles are a collection of HTTP resources and the metadata necessary to interpret the bundle.
The relationship between SXGs and Web Bundles is a common point of confusion. SXGs and Web Bundles are two distinct technologies that don't depend on each other—Web Bundles can be used with both signed and unsigned exchanges. The common goal advanced by both SXGs and Web Bundles is the creation of a "web packaging" format that allows sites to be shared in their entirety for offline consumption.
SXGs are the first part of the Web Packaging spec that Chromium-based browsers will implement.
Loading SXGs #
Initially, the primary use case of SXGs will likely be as a delivery mechanism for a page's main document. For this use case, a SXG could be referenced using the
<a> tags, as well as the
Link header. Like other resources, a SXG can be loaded by entering its URL in the browser's address bar.
<link rel="prefetch" as="document" href="https://example.com/article.html.sxg">
SXGs can also be used to deliver subresources. For more information, refer to Signed Exchange subresource substitution.
Serving SXGs #
Content negotiation #
Content negotiation is a mechanism for serving different representations of the same resource at the same URL depending on the capabilities and preferences of a client—for example, serving the gzip version of a resource to some clients but the Brotli version to others. Content negotiation makes it possible to serve both SXG and non-SXG representations of the same content depending on a browser's capabilities.
Web browsers use the
Accept request header to communicate the MIME types they support. If a browser supports SXGs, the MIME type
application/signed-exchange will automatically be included in this list of values.
For example, this is the
Accept header sent by Chrome 84:
application/signed-exchange;v=b3;q=0.9 portion of this string informs the web server that Chrome supports SXGs—specifically, version
b3. The last part
q=0.9 indicates the q-value.
q-value expresses a browser's relative preference for a particular format using a decimal scale from
1 representing the highest priority. When a
q-value is not supplied for a format,
1 is the implied value.
Best practices #
Servers should serve SXGs when the
Accept header indicates that the
application/signed-exchange is greater than or equal to the
text/html. In practice, this means that an origin server will serve SXGs to crawlers, but not browsers.
SXGs can deliver superior performance when used with caching or prefetching. However, for content that is loaded directly from the origin server without the benefit of these optimizations,
text/html delivers better performance than SXGs. Serving content as SXG allows crawlers and other intermediaries to cache SXGs for faster delivery to users.
The following regular expression can be used to match the
Accept header of requests that should be served as SXG:
Note that the subexpression
(,|$) matches headers where the
q-value for SXG has been omitted; this omission implies a
1 for SXG. Although an
Accept header could theoretically contain the substring
q=1, in practice browsers don't explicitly list a format's
q-value when it has the default value of
Debugging SXGs with Chrome DevTools #
Signed Exchanges can be identified by looking for
signed-exchange in the Type column of the Network panel in Chrome DevTools.
The Preview tab provides more information about the contents of a SXG.
Use cases #
SXGs can be used to deliver content directly from an origin server to a user—but this would largely defeat the purpose of SXGs. Rather, the intended use and benefits of SXGs are primarily achieved when the SXGs generated by an origin server are cached and served to users by an intermediary.
Although this section primarily discusses the caching and serving of SXGs by Google Search, it is a technique that is applicable to any site that wishes to provide its outlinks with a faster user experience or greater resiliency to limited network access. This not only includes search engines and social media platforms, but also information portals that serve content for offline consumption.
Google Search #
Google Search uses SXGs to provide users with a faster page load experience for pages loaded from the search results page. Sites that receive significant traffic from Google Search can potentially see significant performance improvements by serving content as SXG.
Google Search will now crawl, cache, and prefetch SXGs when applicable. Google and other search engines sometimes prefetch content that the user is likely to visit—for example, the page corresponding to the first search result. SXGs are particularly well suited to prefetching because of their privacy benefits over non-SXG formats.
There is a certain amount of user information inherent to all network requests regardless of how or why they were made: this includes information like IP address, the presence or absence of cookies, and the value of headers like
Accept-Language. This information is "disclosed" to the destination server when a request is made. Because SXGs are prefetched from a cache, rather than the origin server, a user's interest in a site will only be disclosed to the origin server once the user navigates to the site, rather than at the time of prefetching. In addition, content prefetched via SXG does not set cookies or access
localStorage unless the content is loaded by the user. Furthermore, this reveals no new user information to the SXG referrer. The use of SXGs for prefetching is an example of the concept of privacy-preserving prefetching.
Accept header sent by the Google Search crawler expresses an equal preference for
application/signed-exchange. As described in the previous section, sites that wish to use SXGs should serve them when the
Accept header of a request expresses an equal or greater preference for SXGs over
text/html. In practice, only crawlers will express a preference for SXGs over
The SXG and non-SXG representations of a page are not ranked or indexed separately by Google Search. SXG is ultimately a delivery mechanism—it does not change the underlying content. Given this, it would not make sense for Google Search to separately index or rank the same content delivered in different ways.
Web Vitals #
For sites that receive a significant portion of their traffic from Google Search, SXGs can be used to improve Web Vitals—namely LCP. Cached and prefetched SXGs can be delivered to users incredibly quickly and this yields a faster LCP. Although SXGs can be a powerful tool, they work best when combined with other performance optimizations such as use of CDNs and reduction of render-blocking subresources.
AMP content can be delivered using SXG. SXG allows AMP content to be prefetched and displayed using its canonical URL, rather than its AMP URL.
All of the concepts described in this document still apply to the AMP use case, however, AMP has its own separate tooling for generating SXGs.
Learn how to serve AMP using signed exchanges on amp.dev.
Implementing SXGs consists of generating the SXG corresponding to a given URL and then serving that SXG to requestors (usually crawlers). To generate a SXG you will need a certificate that can sign SXGs.
Production use of SXGs requires a certificate that supports the
CanSignHttpExchanges extension. Per spec, certificates with this extension must have a validity period no longer than 90 days and require that the requesting domain have a DNS CAA record configured.
This page lists the certificate authorities that can issue this type of certificate. Certificates for SXGs are only available through a commercial certificate authority.
Platform-specific SXG tooling #
These tools support specific technology stacks. If you are already using a platform supported by one of these tools, you may find it easier to set up than a general-purpose tool.
Automatic Signed Exchanges is a Cloudflare feature that automatically acquires certificates and generates Signed Exchanges.
General-purpose SXG tooling #
Web Packager CLI #
The Web Packager CLI generates a SXG corresponding to a given URL.
Once the SXG file has been generated, upload it to your server and serve it with the
application/signed-exchange;v=b3 MIME type. In addition, you will need to serve the SXG certificate as
Web Packager Server #
The Web Packager server,
webpkgserver, acts as a reverse proxy for serving SXGs. Given a URL,
webpkgserver will fetch the URL's contents, package them as an SXG, and serve the SXG in response. For instructions on setting up the Web Packager server, see How to set up signed exchanges using Web Packager.
SXG libraries #
These libraries could be used to build your own SXG generator:
sxg_rsis a Rust library for generating SXGs. It is the most featureful SXG library and is used as the basis for the
libsxgis a minimal C library for generating SXGs. It is used as the basis for the NGINX SXG module and the Envoy SXG Filter.
go/signed-exchangeis a minimal Go library provided by the webpackage specification as a reference implementation of generating SXGs. It is used as the basis for its reference CLI tool,
gen-signedexchangeand the more featureful Web Packager tools.
Signed Exchanges are a delivery mechanism that make it possible to verify the origin and validity of a resource independently of how the resource was delivered. As a result, SXGs can be distributed by third-parties while maintaining full publisher attribution.