Building a breadcrumbs component

A foundational overview of how to build a responsive and accessible breadcrumbs component for users to navigate your site.

In this post I want to share thinking on a way to build breadcrumb components. Try the demo.


If you prefer video, here's a YouTube version of this post:


A breadcrumbs component shows where in the site hierarchy the user is. The name is from Hansel and Gretel, who dropped breadcrumbs behind them in some dark woods and were able to find their way home by tracing crumbs backwards.

The breadcrumbs in this post are not standard breadcrumbs, they're breadcrumb-like. They offer additional functionality by putting sibling pages right into the navigation with a <select>, making multi-tiered access possible.

Background UX

In the component demo video above, the placeholder categories are genres of video games. This trail is created by navigating the following path: home » rpg » indie » on sale, as shown below.

This breadcrumb component should enable users to move through this information hierarchy; jumping branches and selecting pages with speed and accuracy.

Information architecture

I find it's helpful to think in terms of collections and items.


A collection is an array of options to choose from. From the homepage of the breadcrumb prototype of this post, the collections are FPS, RPG, brawler, dungeon crawler, sports and puzzle.


A video game is an item, a specific collection could also be an item if it represents another collection. For example, RPG is an item and a valid collection. When it's an item, the user is on that collection page. For example, they are on the RPG page, which displays a list of RPG games, including the additional subcategories AAA, Indie and Self Published.

In computer science terms, this breadcrumbs component represents a multidimensional array:

const rawBreadcrumbData = {
  "FPS": {...},
  "RPG": {
    "AAA": {...},
    "indie": {
      "new": {...},
      "on sale": {...},
      "under 5": {...},
    "self published": {...},
  "brawler": {...},
  "dungeon crawler": {...},
  "sports": {...},
  "puzzle": {...},

Your app or website will have custom information architecture (IA) creating a different multidimensional array, but I hope the concept of collection landing pages and hierarchy traversal can make it into your breadcrumbs as well.



Good components begin with appropriate HTML. In this next section I'll cover my markup choices and how they impact the overall component.

Dark and light scheme

<meta name="color-scheme" content="dark light">

The color-scheme meta tag in the above snippet informs the browser that this page wants the light and dark browser styles. The example breadcrumbs don't include any CSS for these color schemes, and so the breadcrumbs will use the default colors provided by the browser.

<nav class="breadcrumbs" role="navigation"></nav>

It's appropriate to use the <nav> element for site navigation, which has an implicit ARIA role of navigation. In testing, I noticed that having the role attribute changed the way a screen reader interacted with the element, it was actually announced as navigation, and so I've chosen to add it.


When an icon is repeated on a page, the SVG <use> element means that you can define the path once, and use it for all instances of the icon. This prevents the same path information from being repeated, causing larger documents and the potential of path inconsistency.

To use this technique, add a hidden SVG element to the page and wrap the icons in a <symbol> element with a unique ID:

<svg style="display: none;">

  <symbol id="icon-home">
    <title>A home icon</title>
    <path d="M3 12l2-2m0 0l7-7 7 7M5 10v10a1 1 0 001 1h3m10-11l2 2m-2-2v10a1 1 0 01-1 1h-3m-6 0a1 1 0 001-1v-4a1 1 0 011-1h2a1 1 0 011 1v4a1 1 0 001 1m-6 0h6"/>

  <symbol id="icon-dropdown-arrow">
    <title>A down arrow</title>
    <path d="M19 9l-7 7-7-7"/>


The browser reads the SVG HTML, puts the icon information into memory, and continues with the rest of the page referencing the ID for additional uses of the icon, like this:

<svg viewBox="0 0 24 24" width="24" height="24" aria-hidden="true">
  <use href="#icon-home" />

<svg viewBox="0 0 24 24" width="24" height="24" aria-hidden="true">
  <use href="#icon-dropdown-arrow" />

DevTools showing a rendered SVG use element.

Define once, use as many times as you like, with minimal page performance impact and flexible styling. Notice aria-hidden="true" is added to the SVG element. The icons are not useful to someone browsing who only hears the content, hiding them from those users stops them adding unnecessary noise.

This is where the traditional breadcrumb and those in this component diverge. Normally, this would only be an <a> link, but I've added traversal UX with a disguised select. The .crumb class is responsible for laying out the link and the icon, while the .crumbicon is responsible for stacking the icon and select element together. I've called it a split-link because its functions are very similar to a split-button, but for page navigation.

<span class="crumb">
  <a href="#sub-collection-b">Category B</a>
  <span class="crumbicon">
    <select class="disguised-select" title="Navigate to another category">
      <option>Category A</option>
      <option selected>Category B</option>
      <option>Category C</option>

A link and some options is nothing special but adds more functionality to a simple breadcrumb. Adding a title to the <select> element is helpful for screen reader users, giving them information about the action of the button. However it provides the same help to everyone else too, you'll see it's front and center on iPad. One attribute provides button context to many users.

Screenshot with the invisible select element being hovered and its
contextual tooltip showing.

Separator decorations

<span class="crumb-separator" aria-hidden="true">→</span>

Separators are optional, adding just one works great too (see the third example in the video above). I then give each aria-hidden="true" since they are decorative and not something a screen reader needs to announce.

The gap property, covered next, makes the spacing of these straightforward.


Since the color uses system colors, it's mostly gaps and stacks for styles!

Layout direction and flow

DevTools showing breadcrumb nav alignment with a its flexbox overlay

The primary navigation element nav.breadcrumbs sets a scoped custom property for children to use, and otherwise establishes a horizontal vertically aligned layout. This ensures that the crumbs, dividers, and icons align.

.breadcrumbs {
  --nav-gap: 2ch;

  display: flex;
  align-items: center;
  gap: var(--nav-gap);
  padding: calc(var(--nav-gap) / 2);

One breadcrumb shown vertically aligned with flexbox overlays.

Each .crumb also establishes a horizontal vertically aligned layout with some gap, but specially targets its link children and specifies the style white-space: nowrap. This is crucial for multi-word breadcrumbs as we dont want them to go multi-line. Later in this post we'll add styles to handle the horizontal overflow this white-space property caused.

.crumb {
  display: inline-flex;
  align-items: center;
  gap: calc(var(--nav-gap) / 4);

  & > a {
    white-space: nowrap;

    &[aria-current="page"] {
      font-weight: bold;

aria-current="page" is added to help the current page link stand out from the rest. Not only will screen reader users have a clear indicator that the link is for the current page, we've visually styled the element to help sighted users get a similar user experience.

The .crumbicon component uses grid to stack an SVG icon with a "nearly invisible" <select> element.

Grid DevTools shown overlaying a button where the row and column are both
named stack.

.crumbicon {
  --crumbicon-size: 3ch;

  display: grid;
  grid: [stack] var(--crumbicon-size) / [stack] var(--crumbicon-size);
  place-items: center;

  & > * {
    grid-area: stack;

The <select> element is last in the DOM, so it's on top of the stack, and interactive. Add a style of opacity: .01 so the element is still usable, and the result is a select box that fits perfectly to the shape of the icon. This is a nice way to customize the look of a <select> element while maintaining the built-in functionality.

.disguised-select {
  inline-size: 100%;
  block-size: 100%;
  opacity: .01;
  font-size: min(100%, 16px); /* Defaults to 16px; fixes iOS zoom */


Breadcrumbs should be able to represent a very long trail. I'm a fan of allowing things to go offscreen horizontally, when appropriate, and I felt this breadcrumbs component qualified well.

.breadcrumbs {
  overflow-x: auto;
  overscroll-behavior-x: contain;
  scroll-snap-type: x proximity;
  scroll-padding-inline: calc(var(--nav-gap) / 2);

  & > .crumb:last-of-type {
    scroll-snap-align: end;

  @supports (-webkit-hyphens:none) { & {
    scroll-snap-type: none;

The overflow styles set up the following UX:

  • Horizontal scroll with overscroll containment.
  • Horizontal scroll padding.
  • One snap point on the last crumb. This means that on page load the first crumb loads snapped and in view.
  • Removes the snap point from Safari, which struggles with the horizontal scrolling and snap effect combinations.

Media queries

One subtle adjustment for smaller viewports is to hide the "Home" label, leaving just the icon:

@media (width <= 480px) {
  .breadcrumbs .home-label {
    display: none;

Side by side of the breadcrumbs with and without a home label, for



There isn't a whole lot of motion in this component, but by wrapping the transition in a prefers-reduced-motion check, we can prevent unwanted motion.

@media (prefers-reduced-motion: no-preference) {
  .crumbicon {
    transition: box-shadow .2s ease;

None of the other styles need to change, the hover and focus effects are great and meaningful without a transition, but if motion is okay, we'll add a subtle transition to the interaction.


First, regardless of the type of router you use in your site or application, when a user changes the breadcrumbs, the URL needs to be updated and the user shown the appropriate page. Second, to normalize the user experience, make sure no unexpected navigations happen when users are just browsing <select> options.

Two critical user experience measures to be handled by JavaScript: select has changed and eager <select> change event firing prevention.

The eager event prevention is needed due to the use of a <select> element. On Windows Edge, and probably other browsers too, the select changed event fires as the user browses options with the keyboard. This is why I called it eager, as the user has only pseudo selected the option, like a hover or focus, yet hasn't confirmed the choice with enter or a click. The eager event makes this component category change feature inaccessible, because opening the select box and simply browsing an item will fire the event and change the page, before the user is ready.

A better <select> changed event

const crumbs = document.querySelectorAll('.breadcrumbs select')
const allowedKeys = new Set(['Tab', 'Enter', ' '])
const preventedKeys = new Set(['ArrowUp', 'ArrowDown'])

// watch crumbs for changes,
// ensures it's a full value change, not a user exploring options via keyboard
crumbs.forEach(nav => {
  let ignoreChange = false

  nav.addEventListener('change', e => {
    if (ignoreChange) return
    // it's actually changed!

  nav.addEventListener('keydown', ({ key }) => {
    if (preventedKeys.has(key))
      ignoreChange = true
    else if (allowedKeys.has(key))
      ignoreChange = false

The strategy for this is to watch for keyboard down events on each <select> element and determine if the key pressed was navigation confirmation (Tab or Enter) or spatial navigation (ArrowUp or ArrowDown). With this determination, the component can decide to wait or go, when the event for the <select> element fires.


Now that you know how I did it, how would you‽ 🙂

Let's diversify our approaches and learn all the ways to build on the web. Create a demo, tweet me links, and I'll add it to the community remixes section below!

Community remixes